Addenda to the Flora of Peru
J. Francis MacBride
Associate Curator, Department of Botany, Chicago Natural History Museum
Dr. Fortunato Herrera´s important contributions to the general knowledge of the plants of the Cuzco region have aided immeasurably in the preparation of the Flora of Peru, Field Museum Publication, Botany, 13. 1936-1943. many of them are, indeed, the Cuzco species described there in which his distinguished name is associated as collector or as careful recorder; meritoriously his observations have included the uses of plants, their place in folklore, and their native names. In slight recognition of his research I venture to dedicate to him this addendum even though due to present conditions it is incomplete, and based on literature available, not at all on herberia. Nevertheless, I believe, it largely brings to date the nine numbers of the Flora published, particularly, in so far as these have been compiled by me.
I appreciate greatly the opportunity given me by Dr. Vargas to bring this new material together here in honor of his famous countryman, And I thank Dr. Wiggins, Director of the Natural History Museum and Dudley Herbarium of Stanford University, and his associates for the hospitality that made its accumulation possible, as well as Mrs. J. Abbott, librarian, Biological Library University of California, and her assistant for their friendly help in locating some references. In the Department of Botany of the latter I have had the privilege freely given by Dr. Herbert Mason, Curator of the Herbarium, of working at various times since 1940 on the Flora of Peru. The friendship and respect which all the members of the department have shown me, as well as the stimulating environment and sense of freedom of academic life have been encouraging and inspiring. (….continue)
A forthcoming study of “Calceolaria in Southeastern Peru”
Francis W. Pennell
CURATOR OF PLANTS, ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES,
It was at the Third Pan-American Scientific Congress, held at Lima in December 1924, that I first had the pleasure of meeting Dr. Fortunato L. Herrera. Some months later, in April, 1925, I met with him in his home town and experienced more fully the pleasure of his acquaintance. I remember his kindness to us in Cuzco and I recall most happily our journey together to the Inca ruins of Ollantaitambo.
My expedition to western South America, then being made on behalf of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, the Field Museum of Natural History, the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University, and the New York Botanical Garden, was for the purpose of collecting flowering plants and ferns in Peru and Chile. Mrs. Pennell and I accompanied by my niece, Miss Sara M. Pennell, left New York for Lima on December 11th. After the Scientific Congress in late December, we hastened southward to the island of Chiloe. Incidentally, it was advisable to wait until after the seasonal rains for undertaking our primary task of collecting in Peru. We returned in early April, landing at Mollendo and proceeding at once to Arequipa where we collected a rich harvest of plants after the coastal rains of early 1925. From Arequipa we continued on to Cuzco, collecting in route at Chuquibambilla on the puna and for a few hours at the pass of La Raya. We reached Cuzco on April 22nd.
We were in the Department of Cuzco until the middle of May. First, I collected around the city of Cuzco, and our climb up Sacsaihuaman was at the season of most lavish bloom. Then, on April 26th there was a day´s excursion by train to Ollantaitambo where we gathered plants of a more arid and lower-zone flora. But the great excursion was from April 30th to May 9th, eastward over the hills via Coraumpampa and Huancalle to Pisac on the Rio Vilcanota over the town of Colquepata, thence to the town of Paucartambo on the Rio Paucartambo, and thence northeastward up the last high Andean range to the Paso de Tres Cruces in what the proof sheet of the Puno map, kindly supplied by the American Geographical Society, called the “Cerro de Cusilluyoc”, a name that does not appear on the actual map later issued from the Paso de Tres Cruces on the upper edges of the eastern forest, we followed the new trail from Paucartambo to the Rio Madre de Dios, descending on it northeast area about 2000 meters altitude and above the steep valley of the River Yanamayo. Thence, laden with plant specimens, we returned directly to Paucartambo, and back by a southern route via Vilcanota, Huambutio and Oropesa to Cuzco. Finally, on May 16th we left Cuzco by train for Puno on Lake Titicaca, thence crossing the lake to visit La Paz, Bolivia, and then returning to Arequipa and then to Lima for another month´s collecting in the district of Canta.
Altogether, my collections from the department of Cuzco comprised 679 numbered collections, nearly wholly of flowering plants. Needless to say, such extensive collections, with each number mostly represented by four or five sheets of specimens, was only possible through the devoted assistance of Mrs. and Miss Pennell.
Among the plants gathered I find that there have already been proposed as new to science 52 species. These have been described by various botanists, mostly of the United States. For my own study I have reserved the Scrophulariaceae, of which a report will soon appear in the proceedings of the Academy of natural Sciences of Philadelphia.
For more than thirty years I have been gathering information concerning this family in the New World. On expeditions to various parts of North and South America I have made field-descriptions of the fresh flowers and obtained other pertinent data. So, in Peru, I noted carefully each species of calceolaria, Bartsia, and other genera. I had with me a list that recorded the place, collector of each of the 158 species of this family known from Peru. Of these only 7 has been based upon specimens from the Department of Cuzco and 5 from that of Puno, so I came to suppose that the species would either prove to occur through the Andes from central to southern Peru or else that the Scrophulariaceae were but meagerly developed in southeastern Peru. But, while on the quick crossing of the puna in Puno I saw only 4 species. That these would prove to be to a good degree localized endemics seemed evident from the occurrence of most of them in definite ecological environments that physiographically must be registered to local geographical areas. Thus, the most exciting collecting was on May 2nd between Paucartambo and the Paso de Tres Cruces, where on grassy areas and in the groves of trees I found 16 species of the family that I had not seen before. It was physiographically evident that the continuous favorable environment for these particular Scrophulariaceae could not extend southward on the bleak paramo nor northward through the gorges of the lower Rio Paucartambo, nor could it exist westward on the more arid Vilcanota range nor eastward on the wider forested Andean slopes that front the Amazonian plain. The species of the Paucartambo, among which members of the genus Calceolaria were most conspicuous, must be near and wholly endemic, restricted to this and adjoining pocket-like Andean valleys.
Inspection of the map shows that such locally isolated areas, whether of sequestered valleys or of mountain peaks, occur along most of the moist eastern side of the Peruvian Andes. Recent study has shown me how few of the species gathered in Cuzco and Puno occur in Junin and Huanuco, two territories that are now served by the upper Paucartambo and seemingly by the upper Apurimac as well, some species are confined to areas that are surprisingly small. Such endemism is well developed in Calceolaria.
On my return from Peru to this country in July 1925, I wanted to study at once my Andean collections, whether from Colombia, Peru or Chile. But other obligations had to be fulfilled and I was, at that time, without sufficient knowledge of the actual types of described species. Only for Chile were the types mostly preserved in the Western Hemisphere, and an indispensable acquisition from my visit to that country in early 1925 was a series of photographs and occasional small portions of Phillipi´s many types at the Museo Nacional at Santiago. But for Peru and Colombia nearly all the types were in Europe. In 1930, I was able to visit England and France, thus obtaining my own descriptions, often supplemented by photographs of type-specimens there. But I did not then visit Germany, Switzerland or Spain, and plans for so doing in 1940, in connection with the International Botanical Congress to be held at Stockholm, Sweden, were made abortive by the war. I had particularly hoped to see the types of Dr. Fr. Kraenzlin at Berlin, since he was an ardent student of calceolaria and had based many species upon the Peruvian collections of Dr. August Weberbauer. I suppose that these types have now been destroyed but, thanks to the zeal of Dr. J Francis MacBride there survive excellent photographs of nearly all of them. It is most fortunate for Peruvian botany that the Field Museum of Natural History, with the support of funds from the Rockefeller Foundation, should have made such a photographic record of types from many herbaria of continental Europe. A duplicate series of those showing Scrophulariaceae is at this Academy in Philadelphia.
With the assistance that can be derived from such information about the collections on which past species have been based, and with new collections at hand from various more recent gathering, it is a pleasure to turn once more to the study of the Scrophulariaceae of the Andes. Dr. Vargas´ invitation to contribute to a special volume in honor of Dr. Herrera was a welcome inducement to attempt a study of the genus calceolaria in Cuzco and Puno. The specimens seen have been more like those at this Academy, and those barrowed from the Chicago Museum of Natural History (until recently the Field Museum of Natural History) and from the United States National Herbarium. The actual types will be in one or rather of these three herbaria. But I shall take pleasure in sending to the Universidad de Cuzco a series of my own collection of this genus in southeastern Peru that will include isotypes of those new species now being based on my collections of 1925.
I had hope that this study of Calceolaria in Southeastern Peru would have appeared in the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia by this time. But the next one, commenced at the beginning of April, was only completed in the middle of June and the desired drawings of new species have not yet been commenced. Dr. Vargas has most kindly offered to publish the whole at Cuzco, rather that the recension (with keys to the species and discussion) that I had planned to send him. That course would be most appropriate and I fully appreciate the invitation. But it is evident that the whole will be too late for the intended volume and I do not wish to have this tribute to Dr. Herrera deferred for my contribution.
The forthcoming paper will include 35 species of calceolaria from the two departments of Cuzco and Puno. Among these, 19 will appear as new to science. As soon as it is issued, the paper will be sent to Dr. Herrera and I trust that it will convey to him some sense of my regard and gratitude. Of course, I hope that I shall receive from him, and from other friends in Peru, further material of Calceolaria (and of other genera of its family). No other genus of flowering plants known to me combines such uniformity of flowers with such remarkable diversity of foliage and habit as does Calceolaria. The genus occurs throughout the Andes, but nowhere with a greater wealth of forms than in the eastern ranges of the Andes of Peru. Many species must await scientific discovery and even in this limited territory of southeastern Peru, there will be found further remarkable members of this fascinating Andean genus.
THE ORCHIDS OF CUZCO
Botanical Museum of Harvard University
The Department of Cuzco, laying in the southeastern part of Peru, is one of the largest departments of that fascinating country and contains, in the city of Cuzco, the center of its oldest civilization, the seat of the ancient Incas. With great diversity of physiographic features and altitude, it includes terrain ranging from about 250 meters to over 5480 meters above sea level, from wooded uplands interspersed with grassy plains or steppes to snow-capped peaks.
It seems chiefly to be included in the zone of eastern Peru called (by Dr. J F. MacBride, Flora of Peru, Pt. 1 (1936) 70 (Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ. 351. Bot. Ser. 13) Ceja de la Montaña or “brow of the forest”. It embraces those regions from about 1800 to 3000 meters elevation. At least most of the orchid collections from Cuzco which I have seen appear to have come from localities included within that range of altitude, with now and then a collection from the next lower zone or Montaña, i.e., below 1800 meters. Each river valley varies somewhat in its vegetative zones.
Despite its size, age of civilization, physiographic diversity and consequent richness of flora, Cuzco was entirely neglected by the many early botanical collectors who made Peru a famous hunting ground. Due to its distance from the coast and its general inaccessibility, this department was first visited by a trained scientist, as late as 1837, in the person of the geologist Dr. J. B. Pentland.
From that time until about 1902, no considerable orchid collections were made in Cuzco. Then and during the following decade Dr. A. Weberbauer of the Berlin Academy of Science collected in Cuzco what proved to be the types of a number of new concepts, notably Epistephium macrophyllum Schltr, Elleanthus igneus Schltr, Ponthieva Weberbaueri Schltr, Epidendrum ardens Kranzl, E. cuzcoense Schletr (E. brachyphyllum Lndl), E. haematanthum Schltr, Laelia Weberbaueriana (Kranzl) C. Schweinf, Maxillaria platyloba Schltr, Ornithidium dolichophyllum Schltr, and Pachypyllum breviconnatum Schltr.
In 1914, Dr. J. N. Rose of the United States Department of Agriculture, while commissioned to study the Peruvian Cactaceae, found in the Province of Cercado an inconspicuous little orchid which was named Aa Rosei by Prof Oakes Ames.
The following years, Drs. O. F. Cook and G. B. Gilbert, representing Yale University, the National Geographic Society and the United States Department of Agriculture, explored rather extensively in Cuzco, their orchid collections being mostly from the Provinces of Urubamba and Convencion, at elevations ranging from 1200 to 3000 meters.
From 1925 onward, there occurred a steady increase in collecting in Cuzco, from which the Orchid Family derived many additions.
In later years, Dr. F. W. Pennell, sent by the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, the Gray Herbarium, Prof. Oakes Ames of the Ames Botanical Laboratory and the Field Museum of Natural History of Chicago, botanized intensively in the Province of Paucartambo, his special localities for orchids, as shown by his collections, being near Pillahuata and Paso de Tres Cruces, Cerro de Cusilluyoc, at altitudes of 2000 to 3900 meters. Here on the open grassy paramo, he gathered Habenaria Paivaeana Rchb. F. H. parvicalcarata C. Schweinf, Pterichis triloba (Lindl) Schltr and Altensteinia paleacea Kunth.
Particularly devoted to the Department of Cuzco is Dr. Fortunato L. Herrera whose Flora of Cuzco forms the basis for all taxonomic research on that region and gives many valuable summaries and collectors´ data. His orchid specimens show that during the period between 1928 and 1932, he collected extensively at altitudes of 2000 to 3600 meters in the Valley of Santa Ana of the Convencion and in the Canchis and Urubamba Provinces. It is due to his collecting that the Bolivian Altensteinia Weddeliana Rchb f. the widespread Malaxis fastigiata (Rchb f.) O. Ktze, Pleurothallis serripetala Kranzl, the Venezuelan Epidendrum frigidum Linden ex Lindley and the Bolivian Cyrtopodium Buchtienii Schltr were added to the Cuzco list.
A name widely associated with the several departments of Peru is that of Dr. Weberbauer, of Lima, mentioned above. In 1929, he made many collecting trips to Cuzco, especially in the Lares Valley of the Province of Calca and in the Marcapata Valley of the Province of Quispicanchi. His explorations ranged from 1500 to 3400 meters elevation and included forays into Urubamba and Paucartambo Provinces.
Last but by no means least among the collectors of Cuzco´s rich orchid flora, is Dr. Cesar Vargas, professor of Botany in the University of Cuzco, a worthy pupil of Dr. Herrera. From 1936 until the present time, Dr. Vargas has discovered many novelties among the Orchidaceae, his explorations being chiefly in the Province of Urubamba (Yuncapata, Puyupata, Sayacmarca and Machu Picchu), and in the Province of Convencion Sahuayaco, Sapan-Sachayocc, Pintobamba and Amaibamba, at altitudes of 1000 to 3600 meters. Also he has collected in Paucartambo and Paruro and in the Marcapata district of Quispicanchi.